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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

2                                    ALASKAN GLACIER STUDIES
Brief general lists or descriptions of the glaciers of Alaska have previously been made by Muir,1 Petroff,2 Russell,3 Dall,4 Wright,6 Baker," Davidson,7 Brooks,8 Gilbert,' Greely,10 and, for individual glaciers, by others listed upon subsequent pages. The glaciers of the whole territory -were first shown upon a map by R. U. Goode and E.G. Barnard, published in the National Geographic Magazine " and afterwards reproduced by the United States Geological Survey.12
Glaciers near Portland and Behm Canals. Beginning with the panhandle of southeastern Alaska the first existing glaciers north of British Columbia are those of the Bear and Salmon River headwaters of Portland Canal, and the Chickamin, Leduc, and Unuk River tributaries of Behm Canal. Here fifty or sixty valley glaciers, the larger ones 2 to 10 miles long and 1 to 2$ miles wide, descend from snowfields at an elevation of four to eight thousand feet and end at elevations ranging from 500 to 3000 feet above sea level. None of these ice tongues, except the Soul& Glacier14 as yet bears a name. Photographs showing some of them were taken by the Canadian Boundary Commission in 1894, and these photographs, as well as the detailed maps showing the glaciers,16 are of much value because a second series of photographs and maps made by the commission engaged in locating the boundary in 1906 to 1918 will show the advances and retreats of these ice tongues after more than ten years. The maps unfortunately are on a small scale (1:160,000). They do not go far back into the snowfield area, nor do they show all the glaciers, particularly those back in the interior of the Coast Range. Glaciology has, however, a great aid here in the two sets of maps made as a result of the
i Muir, John, In newspaper notices even before Petroff, Russell, and Dall; Notes on the Pacific Coast Glaciers, American Geologist, VoL XI, 1898, pp. 1887-299; Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol. I, 1901, pp. 119-135.
• Petroff, Ivan, Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. VHI, 1884, pp. 24, 86-86, and Map VI facing p. 75.
• RusseU, I. C., Fifth Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, 1888-4, pp. 848-855; Glaciers of North America, Boston, 1897, pp. 74-180; Scottish Geog. Mag., Vol. X, 1894, pp. 405-407 and map showing known glaciers.
«DaU, W. H., Glaciation in Alaska, Bull. Phil. Soc., Washington, Vol. 6,1884, pp. 83-86.
• Wright, G. R, Ice Age in North America, New York, 1891, 13-35.
• Baker, Marcus, Geographic Dictionary of Alaska, Bull. 187, TJ. S. Geol. Survey, 1902, 2d edition; Bull. 299,1906.
' Davidson, George, The Glaciers of Alaska that are Shown on Russian Charts or Mentioned in Older Narratives, Trans, and Proc. Geog. Soc. Pacific, 2d series, VoL 8,1904, pp. 1-98.
' Brooks, A. H., Glacial Phenomena of Southeastern Alaska, in Professional Paper 1, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1902, pp. 81-35; Geography and Geology of Alaska, Professional Paper 45, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1906, pp. 244-248, 295-296, Pis. XH and XXTT.
• Gilbert, G. K., Glaciers, Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol. ffl, New York, 1904, pp. 1-223; Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. XV, 1904, pp. 449-450.
" Greely, A. W., Handbook of Alaska, 1909, pp. 152-159,265-267.
" Brooks, A. H., Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. XV, 1904, opposite p. 288.
"Professional Paper 45, U. S. GeoL Survey, 1906, PL XXXIV; Bull. 845, PL 1,1908; Map A, Alaska, U. S, Geol. Survey, 1909.
" Some of these glaciers are shown on Chart 8050, U. S. Coast and Geod. Survey, Dizon Entrance to Head of Lynn Canal; also on the map of Southeastern Alaska and a part of British Columbia, Showing Award of Alaskan, Boundary Tribunal.
« Chart 8100, U. S. Coast and Geod. Survey.
" Sheets 4 and 7, Atlas of Award, Alaskan Boundary Tribunal, Senate Document 162, 58th Congress, 2d Session, Washington, .Government Printing Office, 1904.